Finding principles and structure solution

2.3.3.2 Determination of Concept Design (Conceptual Design)
As discussed in the design of this concept include, making the structure function, the search for solutions and the combination principle, the selection of a suitable combination, making the variant concept, and evaluation.



2.3.3.2.1 Determine the function and structure (Determine Function and Their Structures)
2.3.3.2.1.1 Structure Function Overall (Overalle Function)
After the main problem is known, then made the overall structure of the function. The structure of this function is illustrated by a block diagram showing the relationship of inputs and outputs. Input and output flows of energy, materials or signals.

2.3.3.2.1.2 Sub Function
If the overall function is quite complicated, it is a way to anticipate it is split into several sub-functions as in figure 2.4 below.
This division will provide benefits:
- Provide the possibility to conduct further search solutions.
- Give some fruit possible solutions with a combination of solutions see sub function.




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  • Conceptual Design

    As discussed in the design of this concept include, making the structure function, the search for solutions and the combination principle, the selection of a suitable combination, making the variant concept, and evaluation.


    Determine Function and Their Structures

    Overalle Function

    After the main problem is known, then made the overall structure of the function. The structure of this function is illustrated by a block diagram showing the relationship of inputs and outputs. Input and output flows of energy, materials or signals.




    Sub Function

    If the overall function is quite complicated, it is a way to anticipate it is split into several sub-functions as in figure 2.4 below.

    This division will provide benefits:

    - Provide the possibility to conduct further search solutions.

    - Give some fruit possible solutions with a combination of solutions see sub function.


    At the time of making the structure function, must be distinguished between pure design (original design) with the redesign (adaptive design).


    In pure design that became the basis of the structure and function is a major problem specification, currently in the design begins redesign of the structure functions are then analyzed.

    This analysis will provide the possibility for the development of variations of the solution in order to obtain new solutions.



    In this step done:

    - Define the functions

    At first the overall function, then if necessary function of the (sub-functions). This function is then compiled into the structure-function structure, which is the basis for seeking a solution principle.

    The work is obtained:

    One or several functions Structure / Function structure.

    The structure functions are usually pictures or simple diagrams.





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  • Requirement List

    List of the will is an important document, the basic steps in performing other work. Therefore a list of the will must always be reviewed and updated. Important discoveries can arise in the design process as a result of modifications or additions to the list of the will.


    The importance of the list will cause the handling should be orderly and systematic. List of the will that has been handled regularly and systematically in a format called Specifications.

    Having obtained the specifications do langkah2 abstraction and formulation.

    The purpose of abstraction is to determine which part of the specification which is an important and generally applicable.

    Abstraction and formulation will facilitate determining the function and structure function.

    Abstraction and the formulation is as follows:

    1. Desire / whises eliminated.

    2. Imperatives / Demands that do not specify a function to temporarily discarded.

    3. Quantitative scale was changed to a qualitative scale.

    4. Formulate abstraction 1-3.

    5. Formulate a solution abstraction 4.



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  • Clarification of Task

    Overall employment measures contained within the VDI 2221 consists of 7 (seven) stage, which produces 7 (seven) the results of the work.

    These seven steps are:
    Clarification of Task
    In step description of work task is performed and the formulation of a list of requirements that are tailored to the will of consumers and designers, who are expected to be met by the final solution. This information will be the reference preparation of specifications.
    Specification is a list that contains requirements that are expected to be met by a concept that is being created.
    To facilitate the preparation of specifications, can be done by reviewing certain aspects, such as aspects of the geometry, kinematics, force, energy and so on. Of these aspects can described the terms in question, then formulate a task that must be faced to become a designer suit with glasses.
    This specification is an important document that becomes the basis for carrying out other work steps. Therefore, the specification should always be reviewed and updated. To facilitate the next phase of work, specifications should be done regularly and systematically.
    Once the specification is obtained, then do the steps of abstraction and the formulation, which aims to determine which parts of the specification which is an important and generally applicable.
    When performing the steps of abstraction and formulation, the important thing to note is that distinguishes a requirement, whether as a demand (Demand) or desire (Wishes)
    Demand (requirement) is yng requirements must be met in any condition, or in other words if the requirements were not met then the design is invalid / failed.
    Whises is desirable requirements if applicable. As an example of a condition requiring a high cost without a huge influence techniques, then these requirements can be removed / ignored.

    This job step will be tailored to the formulation of consumer wish or the Planning and Production (Product Planning Department)

    The works performed include:

    a) Gather information / data relating to planning, examining obstacles faced anything.

    b) Checking the will-the will of others who can support the work.

    c) Adding a certain will of the company

    d) Formulate the task at hand so that it becomes in accordance with designer glasses.

    The work is the list obtained by the Will / requirements list. This list will be not tied up with a solution


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  • work steps VDI 2221

    Overall employment measures contained in the VDI 2221 consists of 7 (seven) stages, which are grouped into 4 (four) phases, namely:
    1. Translation of Task (Clarification of Task)
    These tasks include the translation of information about their problems and constraints faced. Then compiled a list of requirements regarding the design to be created.
    2. Determination Concept Design (Conceptual Design)
    On the Determination of concept design involved three phases of work are:
    2.1 Determining the function and Strukurnya.
    2.2 Finding Solutions Principles and structure.
    2.3 Describe a variant that can be Realized.
    3. The design realization (embodiment Design)
    In the design of this realization begins by outlining the rancanganke in modules are followed by preliminary design and design finished.
    4. Designing Details (Detail Design)


    Detailed design of this is a design process in the form of images. Which includes an image that is composed and detailed images, including a list of components, material specifications, tolerances and many others. In this phase all the work can be documented so that the manufacture of products by the operator or engineer dilaksaanakan other ditumjuk.
    Working steps are grouped into 4 (four) phases of the above can be described in the following flow chart:



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  • The purpose VDI 2221

    Competition that occurs in making the systems and technical products are determined by ketepat the use / effectiveness of the design process. Various requirements must be tailored to the company, the market situation and developments in technology.

    These three kinds of criteria that must be solved by a method / system design. VDI 2221 together with the principle - the general design principles that apply to the present form of a guideline / methods that are not related to one particular branch of industry.
    Objectives to be achieved is to formulate and direct the various design methods due to the rapidly growing research activities. It is expected that a user can quickly master this method without having to learn in detail.



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  • VDI 2221

    Basically the major tasks of a bachelor of engineering (machine) is to apply science (Scientific Knowledge) it to obtain a solution (solution for technical problems), then develop the solution becomes an optimal solution to overcome the constraints of material, technology and economics.


    Therefore in an effort to fulfill the task is of course required a pattern of thinking (acting) a systematic, creative work is formulated in the method. The use of such methods will help undergraduate engineering circles in interacting with other disciplines, jointly solve actual problems that exist in their environment.
    Designing means outlining ideas that have to solve a problem. By obtaining the idea needed a method that can be used to realize the idea was to produce a work is real and can be accounted for scientifically.
    This prompted the German Association of Engineers (Verein Deutscher Ingenieure / VDI) makes a product design method known as VDI method 2221. The method is "Systematic Approach to Design for Systems Engineering and Product Engineering" (Systematic Approach To The Design Of Products And Technical System) is described by G. Pahl and W. Beitz.
    Within this paper the author tries to explain and describe the VDI 2221 to be more easily understood, and then apply it to design a work desk that is height adjustable



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  • Systematic design method

    Systematic design method is a method of problem solving techniques using a step by step analysis and synthesis.
    Analysis is the decomposition of a complex system into elements and study the  characteristics of each element and its kolerasinya.
    Synthesis is the incorporation of elements of known characteristics to create a new system.
    In a systematic design method, a stage is a continuation of the previous stage and made reference to the stage berikutnya.Dengan stages were processed and quantitative information into qualitative data, in other words * with the results of a new step is always more real than the previous steps .
    In fact this condition is not always achieved, so often required repetition of work (interasi).

    Designing is an attempt to meet the demand that is considered most appropriate way to do. Designing as engineering activities covering various aspects of human life, depends on the discovery and law-hulum of science and technology.


    Designing can also create a situation that could apply those laws into a useful product. Involved in designing many different disciplines such as mathematics, physics, thermodynamics, mechanics, production engineering, science and other metals.

    In addition to design should also studied the linkages that exist in systems engineering objects to be designed, including:

    a. Relation function (Functional Interrelationship)

    The purpose of this function is the connection link between inputs and outputs of a system to perform certain work associated with the surrounding environment.

    b. Relation of work (Physical Interrelationship)

    The purpose of this working relationship is a relationship in which the work done is part of the process physics. Physical processes is based on physical effects. The effect of this physics can be described quantitatively, which means the laws of physics determine the number of physical effects involved. Chemical and biological phenomena included.

    c. Linkages Form (Form Interrelationship)

    The purpose of this form of connection is a real manifestation of the basic forms and materials into a building structure, complete with site selection and arrangement of movement kinematics.

    d. Linkage system (System Interrelationship)

    The purpose of the connection system is that the shape of the design technique is a system that interacts with a more comprehensive system, namely the environment around it.



    The steps in this systematic design methods can be grouped into 4 (four) main stages, including job description, Concept Design, Detailed Design Form and Design.


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  • Selecton Design

    To improve competitiveness, quality and productivity, required the  presence of a research activity and development of new products. In the process of designing a product there was a comparison between the work that is routine and creative work in the exposition of ideas as in the image below.

    Judging from the type, design of products is divided into several categories:

    a) Selection design (design selection)
    In this type, choose one item (or more) from a list a similar item. This is usually done when we have a product catalog. To start the design of this type we have to really know the functions and characteristics of an item and the need of tools designed. For example in the design desk box with required pipe size 30x30mm with a thickness of 2mm. These authors use the pipeline as a table leg (outer vertical pipe) to be assembled with the bottom of the table leg (inner vertical pipe) then we must choose exactly fit pipe box functions and characteristics.

    b) Configuration design (design configuration)
    In this type we assemble all the parts into one part of the whole based on the functions and characteristics. As an example of a writer's desk is designed consisting of an upper frame, lower leg, cable channels, modesty panels, longitudinal beam must be assembled into one piece that functions as a whole. In this assembly that is needed is a method of assembly that we call the design configuration.

    c) Parametric Design (parametric design)
    This type of design is to determine a quantitative scale that the parameters of the formation of a product. Suppose we want to design a cover frame on the desk at work table by using 0.8mm thick plates in order to obtain a stretch of the right materials, it is necessary to stretch the formula used:
    In accordance with the completion we design, Rd, K and t that we want so so many combinations that we get. Here is a critical parameter.

    d) Original design (original design)
    Any design process that we do and had not been previously created will be named with the original design. Unlike the previous design type (selection, configuration and parametric), then this type of design is really something unique and new, which sometimes can not be represented by processes on other types.

    e) Redesign (redesign)
    The so-called re-design is something that has existed design. Most of the processes which occur in industry is process re-design of the prototype that was created earlier. But in its development process is not stagnant and sometimes an industrial holding improvements to meet market needs. Many examples of redesign products such as bicycles, motor vehicles, electronic equipment etc.



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  • CHAPTER II BASIS OF THEORY

    2.1 Product Design
    Product Design is a scientific field or profession that determines the shape / form of a manufactured product, process forms to fit the wearer and in accordance with the production process capability in the industry who produce it. The basic aim of all efforts made by a product designer in the works is to make life more comfortable, pleasant, and efficiently with the human learn to do when conducting activities within the work, at home, or in other places. By studying the parts of products that directly interact with human users, it is hoped can be generated in addition to products that are safe for the users is also safe for the environment. At the end of the touch of a product designer who was born an elegant product that makes people want to buy it.



    A product designer is expected to possess and develop the characteristics of creative, original, and has the ability to process the form, capable of working together in multidisciplinary, controls applied in the field of ergonomics and marketing, and able to present ideas in a systematic and clear. Product designers to develop and explore a wide scope of alternatives through drawings and models, then narrowing the design as directed by the alternative selection through benchmark tests the user's needs and manufacturing capabilities.



    The term "Industrial Product Design" or "Industrial Design" first appeared in the early 20th century as description from preliminary creative process in respect of goods that are mass produced. To overcome the complexity of a mass production process, product designers need to conduct usability testing of products to assure that a product can meet the needs, desires, and expectations of users, and often they rearrange the components or parts to make products more efficiently to produce and easy to be assembled, repaired and recycled.



    A product designer must have and must have:

    - Creative problem solving skills

    - The ability to pour a quick sketch concepts with

    - Ability to communicate verbally and written with good

    - Computer skills.



    In addition, to face competition and criticism of a product design is also basically has 6 important points:

    1. Science (product design - such as those mentioned above)

    2. Intellectual (thinking skills of scientific, creative, innovative alternatives)

    3. Talents (product concept, drawings, models, computer)

    4. Participatory (the concept of problem solving. Plans and reviews, making decisions)

    5. Speak Up (able to express their opinions)

    6. Open Mind (able to accept change and input)




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  • Systematics of the Writing

    For more irregular this thesis the authors will present a systematic sequence of the introduction to the conclusion, so hopefully the reader can understand the material we wanted to convey. The systematics are as follows:


    CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION

    This chapter provides the background design, design goals, affirmation title, boundary issues, stages of manufacture, method of writing, systematic writing of the report, the data source.



    CHAPTER II BASIC THEORY

    This chapter contains the method VDI 2221, objectives, work steps obtained work, process design, work flow that occurs in the process of drafting, annotation task, conceptual design, abstraction, making the structure function, making the selection of variant combinations of concepts, evaluation, designing the form and design of the core.



    CHAPTER III DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT PROCESS

    This chapter contains the rules of the design process, technical factors, ergonomic factors, checklists, lists the will, abstraction, structure functions, the principle of solutions, evaluating, selecting the best combination, as well as form and principle of the solution.



    CHAPTER IV CALCULATION

    This chapter provides an analysis of the calculation and construction of major components and their supporters. Calculation of material requirements needed to become a finished product. The calculations were performed adjusted to the constraints that have been established and the needs of the design.



    CHAPTER V CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

    This chapter is a concluding chapter or last chapter of the whole chapter contained in this final writing. In this chapter there is also the conclusions and suggestions from the design desk which will be referred further development.



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  • sources of data

    In preparing this final data source is a very important factor. The source data is divided into 2 groups, namely the source data based on direct observation and data sources based on indirect observations.


    a) Source of data based on direct observation, among others:

    i. Conducting field studies, it was held at the time we worked at a company engaged in the field of office equipment.

    ii. Observation of the market to determine market prices.

    iii. Discussion fellow colleagues, college friends .


    b) Source of data based on indirect observations:

    i. Literature study / literature This is the application of science based on theories of reference books.

    ii. The theories given by the teacher.

    iii. Searching the internet.




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  • Scope of Problem

    During this planning process becomes the problem is how to design such a work table in order to create a comfortable working desk, practical and so gained a competitive product market.
    This problem we adopted because they see human posture is not the same one to another, so also at the seat, so needed desk work in accordance with the conditions sipemakai. Thus is produced a comfortable working desk, which in turn can increase the productivity of work.




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  • Reasons for the selection of titles

    The title of this thesis is' DESIGN WORK DESK height adjustable WITH USING VDI 2221 "

    1) Because the desk is designed so the title is written in the early design work desk.
    2) The table is height adjustable work according to the wishes of the wearer to feel comfortable to use so as to increase work productivity.
    3) The design of the desk is expected to include some operations related to the subject of the final assignment is the method of VDI 2221.



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